In view of the situation of thermal runaway of lithium ion battery, the mainstream solutions in China are mainly improved from two aspects of external protection and internal improvement. External protection refers to the upgrade and improvement of the system, and internal improvement refers to the improvement of the battery itself.
(1) Improvement of cooling methods
The thermal management system is responsible for controlling the temperature and ensuring that the battery is always operating at a reasonable temperature. Usually, the thermal management system is controlled by the vehicle controller. When the battery pack temperature is abnormal, the air conditioner system dissipates heat or heats the battery in time to ensure battery safety and service life. The heat dissipation mode of the battery can be divided into four categories according to the different heat conduction mode and medium: air cooling (air cooling), liquid cooling (water cooling), phase change material (solid), and combined cooling (air cooling/water cooling + solid cooling).
(2) Improvement of internal materials and structure
Internal improvement is to transform the material structure inside the cell, so as to make the lithium ion battery have better heat resistance and heat dissipation performance. To the current research focus, the development of solid electrolyte; Structural transformation of positive and negative poles; And the introduction of safer diaphragm materials are one of the mainstream methods to improve the thermal performance of batteries from the inside.
Recently, researchers at the university of Texas in Dallas, or already find a solution to the lithium ion battery thermal runaway problem (that is, the accumulation of excessive heat), the method of the research team, said the solution after the battery overheat problem, battery capacity can be increased by 20% - 30%, at the same time reduces the chances of battery fire, explosion and the discovery may change the way that the battery manufacturers.
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