Lithium ion batteries are classified into liquid lithium ion batteries and polymer lithium ion batteries, depending on the electrolyte used. The positive and negative electrode materials used in polymer lithium-ion batteries are the same as liquid lithium ions. The positive electrode materials are divided into lithium manganese acid, ternary materials and materials, and the negative electrode is graphite. The working principle of the battery is basically the same.
The main difference between lithium-ion polymer batteries is the difference in electrolyte. Liquid lithium-ion batteries use a liquid electrolyte, while polymer lithium-ion batteries are replaced by a solid polymer electrolyte, which can be either "dry" or "colloidal". Most currently use polymer colloidal electrolytes.
I. Classification of lithium-ion polymer batteries
1, solid polymer electrolyte lithium ion battery: solid polymer electrolyte lithium ion battery electrolyte is a mixture of polymer and salt, this battery at room temperature ionic conductivity is low, can be used at room temperature.
2, gel polymer electrolyte lithium ion battery: gel polymer electrolyte lithium ion battery that is to add plasticizer and other additives in the solid polymer electrolyte, so as to improve the ionic conductivity, so that the battery can be used at room temperature.
3, polymer lithium ion battery: polymer cathode material of lithium ion battery using conductive polymer as cathode material, its specific capacity is relatively increased. Due to the use of solid electrolyte instead of liquid electrolyte, compared with the liquid lithium ion battery, polymer lithium ion battery has the advantages of thin shape, arbitrary area and arbitrary shape, so that the aluminum plastic composite film can be used to make the battery shell, so as to improve the specific capacity of the whole battery; Polymer lithium-ion batteries can also use polymer as a cathode material, its mass/energy ratio will be more than 20% higher than the current liquid lithium-ion batteries. Polymer lithium-ion battery has the characteristics of miniaturization, thinness and lightweight. As a result, the market share of polymer batteries will gradually increase.
Two, lithium ion polymer battery use precautions
1. Pay attention to short circuit
Polymer lithium-ion batteries are prone to short circuits during the process. Including: internal short circuit, external short circuit and so on. Although most lithium-ion batteries today come with a protective circuit to prevent short circuits, as well as explosion-proof wires, in many cases this protective circuit may not work in various situations, and the use of explosion-proof wires is limited.
2. Don't overcharge
Polymer lithium-ion batteries are more likely to expand if they take too long to charge. Lithium chemical properties are very active, easy to burn, when the battery charge and discharge, the battery internal temperature continues to rise, the gas generated in the activation process expansion, battery internal pressure increase, pressure to a certain extent, such as the shell is scarred, that will break, cause leakage, fire, and even explosion. Polymer lithium-ion batteries only expand.
When using lithium-ion polymer batteries, it is important to be safe.
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